COMPONENTS OF FOOD

  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Proteins
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins
  • Water
  • Roughage

Carbohydrates

  • Elements – Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
  • 1 gm – 17 KJ or 4.1 Kcal energy
  • Main source of energy provider
  • Supplied to tissues as GLUCOSE (Blood Sugar)
  • Types :
    Monosaccharides : Glucose, Fructose, Glactose
    Disaccharides : Sucrose, Lactose
    Polysaccharides : Starch
  • Fructose : The sweetest sugar (Fruit, Honey)
  • Excess sugar stored as glycogen in liver (glycogenesis)
  • Left sugar converted into fat and stored as adipose tissue in various part of body (lipogenesis)
  • Source : Rice, Wheat, Maize etc

Fats

  • Fats energy = 2.25 * Carbohydrate energy
  • Lipase digests fats – fatty acids + glycerol
  • Types :
    Saturated fatty acids : Solid at room temperature
    Unsaturated fatty acids : Liquid at room temperature
  • Saturated fat : ghee, butter
  • Unsaturated fat : vegetable oils
  • Excess of saturated fats causes Arteriosclerosis (hard arteries)
  • Hydrogenation : Process by which unsaturated fatty acids are converted into saturated fatty acids
  • Requirement : 50 gms per day



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