Absolute cell address

A cell address or range name in a formula that always refers to the same cell or range of cells. To make a cell address absolute, prefix the row and column with a dollar sign ($); for example, $AX$2.


The act of representing the essential features of something without including much detail.

Accent colors

Colors that are applied to secondary features on a slide. Accent colors are also used on graphs.

Access time

The time interval between the instant at which data is called from a storage device and the instant delivery begins.


A form of access to a computer or network for a specific user name and password usually with a home directory, an E-mail in box, and a set of access privileges.

Action buttons

Pre-drawn button icons that can be placed on a PowerPoint slide and associated with an animation effect.

Active area

The part of the current worksheet into which you have entered data or have formatted cells. The active area starts at cell A1 and ends at the lowest and rightmost filled or formatted cell.


The placement of text along the left margin, right margin, or both margins.


Pertaining to a character set that contains letters, digits, and usually other special characters, such as the comma, dollar sign, plus sign, etc.

ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
It is one of the components of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of the computer which performs all mathematical and logical operations.

Anchored range

A range of cells in which one corner is fixed. You can adjust the other corner with the pointer-movement keys. To anchor a range, press the period key (.).


To create the illusion of movement during an electronic slide show by controlling how text is displayed.


To add a special visual or sound effect to text or an object. For example – you can have your text bullet points fly in from the left, one word at a time, or hear the sound of applause when a picture is uncovered. You can animate any number of objects on a slide, and you can even animate elements of a chart.


A set of images, pictures, or drawings displayed in sequence to imply movement. Computer animation files can be inserted in programs, such as PowerPoint and run by the speaker or viewer.


To draw or write a comment. In a Power-Point slide show, annotation refers to using the electronic pen to write or draw.

Anywhere Banking

Customer can deposit / withdraw cash at any branch other than the branch in which he holds the account. Anywhere banking frees the customer from geographical boundaries and limitations and gives the flexibility to the customer to use his account across the board.


A small application unable to run by itself. When you purchase PowerPoint or another application, it may come with additional applets. For example, PowerPoint comes with applets for manipulating fonts (WordArt), drawing graphs (Microsoft Graph), and creating graphics (Microsoft Draw).

Application program

Software designed for a specific purpose, such as pay calculation, processing of examination results, stores accounting and inventory control, etc.


Specific uses for a program. With Word, for example, you can create letters, mailing lists, proposals, resume, timetables, etc.


The overall design, construction, organization and interconnecting of the various components of a computer system. It refers particularly to the processor hardware and the size and ordering sequence of its bytes.


Backup storage. Usually a secondary storage medium, such as magnetic tape or a mass storage device that operates on semidirect access and sequential principles.

Ascending order

Database records or other worksheet data can be sorted in either ascending or descending order. Ascending sorts labels in alphabetical order and values from lowest to highest.


It is a document file in the universally recognized text format called ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange). An ASCII file contains characters, spaces, punctuation, carriage return, and sometimes tabs and an end-of-file marker, but it contains no formatting information, like bold or italic character.


Features of an object that you can manipulate using the PowerPoint tools and commands, including line, fill, shadow, embossing, color, and shape. Both graphic and text objects have attributes.

Audio response

An output medium that produces verbal responses from the computer system.


A feature that scans a PowerPoint presentation; by matching keywords with the presentation content. AutoClipArt suggests clip art images that might be appropriate to add to the slides.

AutoContent Wizard

A tool that guides you through the steps of a proposed presentation and includes suggested content.


The slide layouts that are available when you add a new slide to a presentation. AutoLayouts contain ready-made place-holders for titles, text, and objects, such as clip art, graphs and charts. You can change layouts whenever you want using the Layout button on the status bar.

AutoLayout object area

The bordered areas, in addition to the title placeholder, that appear when your create a new slide. There are many kinds of object placeholders: placeholders for text, graphs, tables, organizational charts and clip art. Just click to add text in a placeholder, or double-click to add the specified object.

Automated Office

A general term that refers to the merger of computers, office, electronic devices and telecommunications technology in an office environment.


A menu on the PowerPoint Drawing toolbar that contains a variety of common shapes (also called AutoShapes) which can be drawn automatically by clicking and dragging the cursor across a slide.

Background color

The underlying color of a PowerPoint slide. If you are painting on a white canvas, for example, your background color is white. You can paint any other color on top of it, but the underlying color remains white; everywhere you do not add paint, the white shows. The background color on a slide works the same way.

Background item

An object you can add to the Slide Master so that it will appear on all slides in a presentation that follow the Slide Master. Power-Point considers any object on the Slide Master – other than the master title and master text – to be a background item. Background items typically include the date, the time, the page or slide number and the name of the presentation.


Alternate facilities of programs, data files, hardware equipments, etc., that are used in case the original one is destroyed, lost, or fails to operate.

Backup File

A duplicate of another file, which you create for safekeeping. A special kind of backup file, .bak, is automatically created by Word when you save the file you have been editing. You can not edit a .bak file.

Bar graph

A graph that shows numeric data as a series of vertical or horizontal bars of different height evenly spaced along the x-axis or y-axis respectively. Each bar reflects the value of a single worksheet cell. The bar graph has labels that identify what each bar represents.


The total number of digits (symbols) available to represent numbers in a positional number system.

BIOS (Basic Input Output System)

Bios is responsible for handling the details of input / output operations including the task of relating a program’s logical records to a peripheral device physical records.


Acronym for binary digit which stands for one binary piece of information. This can be either 0 or 1.


Binary Large Object. Essentially, a long bit of string used for complex data.


A portion of text ranging in length from one word to several pages. During editing, you mark blocks in order to move, copy, or delete text.


A group of related items (records, characters, etc.) handled as a unit during input and output. A section of program coding treated as a unit.

Block move

An operation in which data is moved to a different location. Block moves are typically used in re-organizing documents with a word processor, or editor in a high level language.

Blocking factor

The number of logical records in a physical record.


Either a device or a storage area where data are temporarily stored.


An error in a computer program. Byte A fixed number of adjacent bits that represent a particular character or symbol. Normally a byte consists of eight bits.

CAD (Computer Aided Design)

Use of computers to automate design operation.

CAI (Computer Aided Instruction)

A general term that refers to teaching with the help of a computer. Also called CAE (Computer Aided Education).

CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing)

Use of computers to automate manufacturing operations.

Canned Programs

Programs prepared by an outside supplier and provided to the user in a machine readable form.


A device used to contain a pre-recorded program.


The intersection of a column and a row in an Excel worksheet. The cell is the basic unit of a worksheet.

Cell address

A cell’s location in the grid of worksheet / column / row intersections. The cell address consists of the worksheet letter, a colon, and the column letter plus the row number.

Cell pointer

The highlighted rectangle in the worksheet displays area that marks the current cell. You can move the cell pointer with arrow keys and a number of other keys on the key-board.

Chain printer

A printer in which the characters are embossed on a chain or band. The chain is in the form of a loop which rotates at a high-speed and print heads are activated to print specified characters.


A single digit, letter, punctuation mark, space, or other symbol which the computer can read or write.

Character attribute

An enhancement which you can add to a font, such as bold, italic or underline.

Character printer

A printer with a print mechanism that prints one character at a time.

Character string

Any group of contiguous characters (letters, numbers, punctuation marks, special symbols, etc.) enclosed in quotation marks and used in formulas and macros.


A pictorial representation of data. A chart is also sometimes referred to as a graph.


A thin wafer of silicon on which integrated electronic components are deposited.

Clip Art

A collection of images you can use in your documents. Clip is often distributed on CD-ROM in large collections (thousands of Clip Art pieces) organized into categories. Various Clip Art formats are sold, and the most popular are Computer Graphics Meta-file (CGM), Windows (WMF), Bitmap (BMP), and Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) format files. PowerPoint comes with a set a Clip Art contained in the Clip Gallery 3.0.

Color palette

A display consisting of various color blocks; you can select a color fill to add to an object or slide from a color palette.

Color scheme

A set of eight coordinated colors you can use in a presentation.

Column selector

A horizontal bar at the top of a column that you click to select an entire column in the query design grid or the filter design grid.

COM (Computer Output Microfilm)

An output device that records computer output on microfilm.

Comma format

A global or a local format that adds commas to numbers larger than 999 arid places negative values in parentheses.


An instruction transmitted to your computer when you press specified keys.


While viewing a PowerPoint presentation, notes objects called comments can be added directly to slides and are contained in comment boxes.


To convert or translate a program written in a high-level language to an absolute or machine language form.


An electronic equipment designed to automatically accept and store input data, manipulate them, and produce output results under the direction of a detailed step-by-step stored program or instructions.

Computer graphics

The area of computer science which is concerned with the generation, manipulation and display of pictures with the aid of a computer.

Computer network

A distributed data processing system in which multiple computers are linked together for the purpose of data communication and resource sharing.

Computer system

The various components (input and output devices, storage, CPU) of a computer integrated together to perform the steps called for in the program being executed.


A special text file that controls certain aspects of operating-system behavior in MS-DOS and OS/2. Commands in the CONFIG.SYS file enable or disable system features, set limits on resources (for example, the maximum number of open files), and extend the operating system by loading device drivers that control hardware specific to an individual computer system.


A category of AutoShape object used to connect two or more objects. Connectors typically have arrowheads at one or both ends to indicate flow or direction.


The part of a computer system that enables human operators to communicate with the computer.


A value, written into a program instruction, that does not change during the execution of program.

Constraint keys

Modifier keys that let you restrict an aspect of an object as you draw it. When you draw shapes, you can hold down the  key as well as  to control the way an object is to be drawn. In this way, you can draw an object from its center, or you can draw regular shapes, such as circles and squares, or you can draw lines at precise angles.

Container document

The document on the receiving end of a linked object which comes from the source document. A PowerPoint presentation that includes linked objects is a container document.

Control commands

Commands issued to the computer when you press a key (or keys) while holding down the Ctrl key.

Control handle

A square that appears to indicate a vertex of a freeform shape or a polygon. You can edit freeform shapes and polygons by adding, deleting, and moving their control handles.

Control Key 

A key, often represented by the caret symbol (^), used with other keys to command the computer to perform specific functions.

Control panel

A tool in Windows operating system which allows you to install software and change different settings for Windows, such as Date, Time, Keyboard, Mouse, Password, Display, Sound Settings, etc.

Control Unit

Part of the central processor which directs the sequence of operations, interprets the coded instruction, and checks the execution of program instructions.

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

Control unit and arithmetic logic unit of a computer system are jointly known as the CPU. All calculations and comparisons are made inside the CPU and the CPU is also responsible for activating and controlling the operations of the other units of a computer system.

Criteria range

The criteria range contains selection criteria that tells Excel which records in the input range to search for during a database query. The criteria range must contain exact copies of the field names from the input range.


To trim vertical or horizontal edges of a picture by using the cropping tool on the Picture toolbar. After you crop a picture, you can always uncrop it. Photos are often cropped to focus attention on a particular portion of the photo.

CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)

An electronic tube with a TV like screen upon which information may be displayed.

Cryptographic checksum

A one-way function applied to a file to produce a unique ‘‘fingerprint’’ of the file for later reference. Checksum systems are a primary means of detecting file system tampering on UNIX.


A system of secret communications to improve the security of confidential computerized files.

Current Account

Current account is mainly for business persons, firms, companies, public enterprises, etc.


Usually a small rectangle or line of light on the screen, marking your place in the text. Cursor shapes differ with different operating systems.

Custom Animation

A feature in PowerPoint that allows you to set special effects and the sequence of slides in an on-screen presentation.

Custom Shows

A feature in PowerPoint that allows you to save different subsets of slides in a presentation to create different versions of the show from the same set of slides.


A customer (sometimes known as a client, buyer, or purchaser) is the recipient of a Good or a service, or a product, or an idea, obtained from a seller, vendor, or supplier via a financial transaction or exchange for money or some other valuable consideration.


A term, popularized by author William Gibson, for the shared imaginary reality of computer networks. Some people use cyberspace as a synonym for the Internet. Others hold out for the more complete physical-seeming consensual reality of Gibson’s novels.


In a disk pack, a set of corresponding tracks in all the surfaces is called a cylinder. All tracks of a cylinder are accessible by a single movement of the access mechanism.

Daisy wheel printer

A letter-quality printer that uses a printing head with the appearance of daisy and / or a wheel. Each petal of the daisy wheel has a character embossed on it.


Acronym for Direct-Access Storage Device. It is the online secondary storage which is always available to a processor.


Information stored or processed by the computer.


A collection of facts in raw form that become information after proper organization or processing.

Data file

A group of related pieces of information called records, stored together on a disk. A record belongs to a mailing list, for example, might contain all the information about a single addressee. One field within that record might contain name, street address, city, etc.

Data label

Values or words that appear next to above, or below the data points on a graph.

Data range

The range of cells containing the data records to be sorted or graphed.


A collection of data files integrated and organized into a single comprehensive file system, which is arranged to minimize duplication of data and to provide convenient access to information within that system to satisfy a wide variety of user needs.

Database administrator

Responsible for defining, updating, and controlling access to a database.

Database Management System

A general-purpose software package used as a tool for building individual database systems. The software used for the management, maintenance, and retrieval of the data stored in a data base.

Database server

A system that receives requests from client applications over a network and responds by returning requested data (the answer set). Each database server is made up of a computer, an operating system, and database server software.

Database system

A combination of software and hardware for performing some task or group of tasks that involve in handling a large amount of information.

Database table

A collection of related data items arranged in rows and columns in a worksheet. An Excel database table consists of fields and records; fields are arranged in columns and records in rows.


Data from a table displayed in a row-and-column format.

Date number

Excel’s internal method of keeping track of dates. Excel starts its calendar at January 1, 1900. It assigns the number 1 to that date, 2 to January 2, 1900, and so on.


Process of finding and correcting program errors (bugs).


A pre-set value or condition in a program, which you can change or allow to stand.

Default print settings

The print settings unless you change the different settings.

Delivery Channel

A method of providing products or services. Examples of delivery channels include traditional banking outlets such as bank branches, ATMs, or branchless banking channels, such as mobile banking and agent banking.


To indent a line of text more that the previous line, indicating a lower level of importance.


Visual elements of a slide. When changing presentation templates in PowerPoint, the Apply Design command is used. A template contains various design elements for slides, such as graphic objects and a color scheme.

Design template

A template whose format and color scheme you apply to a presentation. A large selection of professionally designed templates come with PowerPoint, and you can also use any presentation as a template.

Desktop Publishing Packages (DTP)

Software that combines text and graphics manipulating capabilities to allow users to format charts and pictures with text and headlines.

Desktop Publishing System

A system that combines a computer and suitable peripherals with software that can produce attractive page layouts complete with pictures and text printed in a variety of typefaces.


Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits.


An input device used to convert graphic and pictorial data into binary, numeric inputs for a digital computer.

Direct access

Pertaining to storage devices where the access time is effectively independent of the location of the data.


An on screen list of the file names on your disk.


A flat, circular plate coated with a magnetic material on which data can be stored by magnetization of portions of the flat surface.

Docked toolbar

A toolbar that is attached to one edge of the program window. You can dock a toolbar below the program title bar or to the left, right, or bottom edge of the program window. When you drag a toolbar to the edge of the program window, the toolbar outline snaps into place along the length of program window edge.


Documentation of a software system involves collecting, organizing, storing, and maintaining a complete historical record of programs and other documents used or prepared during different phases of a system.


An operating system which contains the disk-oriented commands and uses disk devices for permanent storage.


The period during which a computer is malfunctioning or not operating correctly due to machine failures.


To perform a move operation by selecting and dragging icon from one location to another location and then releasing the mouse button.


The person or entity on whom a draft / bill is drawn by the drawer.

Drum printer

A line printer that uses a solid, rotating, cylindrical drum on which the characters to be printed are embossed.

Dump terminal
A terminal that has no local processing capability.


A process whereby the contents of all or a part of primary storage are copied onto some secondary storage device or displayed on a printer or screen.


DVDs have much more storage capacity as compared to CDs. These are of three types: DVD-ROM, DVD-R and DVD-RW.


To change a cell entry. You modify a cell entry by pressing the Edit (F2) key, which displays the current entry in the second line of the control panel so that you can make changes to it. Press box enclose Enter to complete an edited entry.

Electronic mail

A general term to describe the transmission of messages by the use of computing systems and telecommunications facilities.

Electronic slide show

A pre-defined list of slides displayed sequentially on-screen or using a LCD projector.

Electronic spreadsheet

An application package usually available with microcomputers that displays the equivalent of a worksheet made up of rows and columns. It may be used for computation or display of information in a tabular form.

Electrostatic printer

A high-speed printer that uses charged pins to form character matrices on paper.

Electrothermal printer

A high-speed printer that uses heated elements to create characters as matrices of small dots on heat-sensitive paper.


An emergency is a situation that poses an immediate risk to health, life, property, or environment.


A program that permits one computer to execute the machine-language instructions.

End user

Any individual who uses the information generated by a computer based system.

EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)

A semi-conductor memory which allows the eraser of the information stored in it by exposure to ultraviolet light. Later, new information can be stored in it.


Science that focuses on how machines and other things should be designed and arranged so that people can interact with them in a comfortable and efficient way.

Error message

A statement that appears on your screen when your computer is unable to continue processing. The message tells you what the problem is and how to solve it.


A function in Outline view of PowerPoint that allows you to open up all the lines of an outline to display all the detail points.


To separate and lift out one or more slices of a pie chart for emphasis.

Extended ASCII

Extended ASCII provides added capability by allowing for 128 additional characters, such as accented letters; graphics characters, and special symbols.

Extended memory

Main memory beyond 1 Mb in PC systems based on the Intel microprocessors. Extended memory is not typically available to MS-DOS programs. But Windows 9X makes use of this memory for better performance of the packages.


A feature that allows the extension of existing code. This allows the creation of new objects from the existing ones.


It is a place where people can express their views and discuss things in an open way, as they can and do in may other places.

Facsimile (FAX)

Transmission of pictures, texts, maps, graphs, etc., over transmission lines, phone lines, and other carriers between geographically separated points. An image is scanned at a transmitting point and duplicated at a receiving point.


Categories in a database record. For example, in a phone book record, the fields would be name, address, and phone number. In an Excel database table, fields are labeled as columns.

Fifth generation computers

These computers will be introduced shortly. They will use a large number of processors working concurrently and independently. Simpler programming languages and knowledge based system implementations are expected in this generation.


A collection of related records.

File Management System (FMS)

A software package that allows users to define data items, place these items into specified records, combine these records into designated files, and then manipulate and retrieve stored data in various ways to achieve user’s goals.

Fills color

PowerPoint uses to fill objects with colors that contrast with both the background color as well as the lines and text color to make round out your color scheme. You can change a fill color any time which you want.


A sequence of instruction (software) that is substituted for hardware and stored in Read Only Memory (ROM). Another example of Firmware is PROM, i.e., programmable read only memory.

First-in, First-out (FIFO)

A technique for processing jobs on a first-come, first-served basis.

Flash Memory

It is electrically erasable and programmable permanent type memory. Its entire contents can be erased in one operation. Flash memory modules upto 4 GB capacity are available. The modules are available as flash cards and flash drives. Flash drives can replace hard disk drives in some applications. They are static and faster and hence costlier.

Floating-point numbers

Signed numbers held in a fraction-exponent format. For example, 3216 would be represented as 0.3216 x 104 in floating-point notation.

Floppy disk

See disk.


The typeface, type size, and type attributes of text or numbers

Font size

The size of a font is actually the height of a character, which is measured in points. A 72-point font has characters that are roughly one inch high.


Text or graphics that appears at the bottom of page.


The way you arrange text on your screen, using commands for setting margins, centering text, etc.


A mathematical expression that performs calculations on values in the worksheet. Formulas can contain numbers and arithmetic operators, as well as cell addresses, range names, and functions.

FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation)

A high-level, mathematically oriented programming language used for scientific and engineering applications.

Four-arrow pointer

The pointer used to move paragraphs around on slides and in outlines.

Fourth-Generation Language (4GL)

A language that specifies results of operations rather than procedures to achieve these results.

Fourth generation computers

Computers built between 1975 and till date. They use large scale integrated circuits, semiconductor memories and powerful high-level languages and operating systems.


Using a drawn object, such as a square as a border around another object on a slide.

Free rotate

A PowerPoint function that allows you to turn an object in any direction, for example 360 degrees.


A drawing style and drawing object type that provides no preset definition to the object. Freeform drawing is similar to drawing on paper with a pencil and no ruler or guides to direct the line.

Front-end processor

A CPU designed specifically to handle the communications between processing task. Its main purpose is to off-load communications processing task from the host computer, so that the host computer can be dedicated for applications and data processing jobs.

General purpose computer

A computer capable of performing a variety of business and scientific applications.

General purpose programming language

A programming language intended to solve a number of different types of problems.

General software package

A software package, such as payroll and word processing, developed for users.


A subtle shading from lighter to darker in a background of one or two colors giving the effect of a light source form the selected direction.


A visual way to present data. A graph can often illustrate trends and projections more clearly and effectively than worksheet numbers.

Graph file

A file in which you store a graph for use. The graph file can then be printed or edited by other software programs.

Graph window

A part of the worksheet display that shows the current graph. You establish a graph window by moving the cell pointer to the column at which you want to start the Window.


Graphic images come in all shapes and sizes. Typical graphics include Clip. Art images, drawings, photographs, scanned images, signature files, etc.

Graphic display terminal

A visual display terminal which has a screen to display a graph or drawing as well as alphanumeric information.

Graphic format

The protocol used to save a graphic file, such as GIF or EPS.


A multiple selection that you treat as a single object by using the Group command on the Draw menu. Nested groups are multiple groups of objects, in a drawing, for example, Clip Art often is built with nested groups.


Printed output of PowerPoint presentation containing miniature versions of two, three or six slides. Audience handouts are intended to be distributed to presentation viewers to help them follow a presentation.

Hard copy

Printed or filmed output from a computer device in human readable form.


The physical components of a computer system, such as electronic, magnetic, and mechanical devices.


Text or graphics that appears at the top of every page.

Hidden object

Slide or element on slide that does not temporarily appear on-screen and is not included in printed output of a PowerPoint presentation.

Hidden slide

A slide that does not automatically display during a slide show. You decide which slide or slides you want to be ‘‘hidden’’ and whether you want them to appear during your show. That way you can tailor a show to fit several different audiences.

High-level language

A programming language whose structure is application oriented and is independent of the structure of the computer.

High-Low-Close-Open (HLCO) graph

A graph that plots up to four data points as a series of vertical lines. HLCO graphs are typically used to track the performance of a stock equity over time. They plot the high, low, closing, and opening prices of the stock. They are also called stock market graphs.


Emphasize, a character, word, or block of text by making it either brighter or dimmer than the surrounding text.

Host computer

Main control computer in a network of distributed processors and terminals.

Hyphen Help

A Word feature that finds places where hyphenation would improve the appearance of your text.

I/O (Input/Output)

Pertaining to the techniques, media, and devices used for man-machine interaction.

Indexed file

A file that includes an index directory to facilitate random access.

Indexed sequential access method

A method whereby records are organized in a sequential order and can be referenced directly through an index based on some key or characteristic.


Result of data manipulation or processing which can be used to help people in making decisions.

Information hiding

The principle which states that the state and implementation of an object or module should be private to that object or module and only accessible via its public interface (same as encapsulation).

Information Technology (IT)

IT encompasses any combination of equipment (hardware) that facilitates the acquisition, creation, modification, retrieval, storage and transmission of information using electronic media. Thus, IT includes both computing and communications technology. Various aspects of IT are hardware, software, connectivity, telecommunications, science and human-computer interface.


Data entered into a data processing system.

Input / Output

Input refers to any information coming into the computer. Output refers to processed information going out of a computer.

Input device

A device used to enter information into a computer or other data processing devices; for example keyboard.

Insertion point

A linking vertical line that appears on-screen at a location where you can enter data. The insertion point is sometimes called a cursor. Characters that you type appear to the left of the insertion point.

Intelligent terminal

A terminal having local processing capability. It has a built-in CPU and can perform specific functions, such as editing data, controlling other terminals, etc.


A PowerPoint or other multimedia presentation is interactive when the viewer is able to make selections as to how the presentation runs or what is displayed, in effect interacting with the presentation itself.


Interest is the periodic amount credited / debited to a deposit / loan account by a Bank based on accepted agreed terms and conditions by the depositor and the Bank / the loanee and the Bank. Interest is calculated at a specified percentage of the principal amount.

Internet assistant

A programmed series of steps a PowerPoint user can invoke to create a folder of presentation files to be moved to an Internet server.


A language processor that translates a statement of a high-level language and immediately executes it before translating the next source language statement. It is the most common language processor for BASIC.

ISAM (Index Sequential Access Method)

Relating to a file design technique whereby records organized in a sequential order can be accessed directly through an index (directory) based on some key or characteristic. Permits both sequential and random access of records.


The alignment of text within given margins. The left margin is justified as you enter your text. Word Wrap justifies the right margin by adding small spaces between words.

K (Kilo)

Used to represent 210 = 1024 in computers only.


A device used to enter data onto a disk device.


A device used to enter data onto a magnetic tape.


Any cell that begins with a letter or a label-prefix character is a label.

Label prefix

Indicates that a cell entry is a label, as opposed to a value. Label prefixes include the apostrophe (’) for left-aligned labels, the quotation mark (‘‘) for right-aligned labels. the caret (^) for centered labels, the back slash (\) for repeating labels, and the vertical bar (|) for printer setup strings and non-printing rows.

LAN (Local Area Network)

A digital communication system capable of interconnecting a large number of computers, terminals and other peripheral devices within a limited geographical area, typically within 1 km.

Landscape mode

One of two printing modes available on most printers (the other is portrait mode). In landscape mode, printed lines run parallel to the paper’s direction of travel through the printer. The orientation of a print page of output with the longer side of the page running across the top of the document.

Landscape orientation

A printer mode that causes text and graphs to be printed sideways on the page, across the long dimension.


In PowerPoint, the process of placing objects one on top of another on your slide to give the appearance of a stack of objects. Objects can be brought forward to appear to be placed at the top of the stack, or sent back to any of the layers behind the first object.


In PowerPoint, layouts (also called Auto Layouts) are applied to each slide in a presentation displaying various of placeholders used for entering slide content. Placeholders include title, bulleted lists, Clip Art, charts, organization charts, and multimedia clips.


Legends explain the patterns, symbols, and colors used to identify the A through F data ranges on a graph. The legends and patterns, symbols, and colors appear beneath the graph.

Light pen

A pen shaped device that is used as an input device to computers by writing or sketching on the screen of a cathode ray tube.

Line graph

A graph that represents worksheet values as a continuous line, a sequence of symbols, or both. Line graphs are generally used to show one or more values changing over time. The x-axis defines a specific period of time; the y-axis is a numbered scale.

Line printer

A printer that prints one line at a time.


Linux is an operating system kernal that behaves and performs similar to the famous UNIX operating system from AT & T Bells Labs. It has all the features of a modern operating system: true multitasking, threads, virtual memory, shared libraries, demand loading, shared, copy-on-write executables, proper memory management, loadable device driver modules, video frame buffering, and TCP/IP networking.

LISP (LISt Processing)

A high-level programming language suitable for handling logical operations and non-numeric applications. It is used in the areas of pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and simulation of games.

Local storage

Storage areas, called registers, used by the CPU to interpret instructions and perform arithmetic and logical operations.

Logical operator

Used in formulas to test for equality, inequality, and other conditions. The relational operators are :, > =, =, < >. The logical operators are #NOT#, #OR#, and #AND#. A logical formula evaluates either TRUE (1) or FALSE (0).

Long label

A label that is longer than the column width of the cell.


A type of programming structure which performs the process of iteration in which instructions are executed over and over again.

Looping macro

A set of macro instructions that executes repeatedly. The macro commands {BRANCH} and {FOR} can create a loop in a macro.

Low-level languages

Programming languages that normally translate from one source instruction to one object instruction. These languages are machine dependent.


The brightness or dullness of a color; one of three parameters used to specify a color (the others are hue and saturation). It represents the brightness of a color on a scale from black to white.

Machine language

A low-level language that is directly understandable by the computer system. Each model of a computer has a unique machine language.


A set of instructions for automating Excel’s task. Macros include key strokes, macro commands, values, and labels. They can duplicate simple keyboard operations but can also be self-contained applications. Any Excel’s task you can perform can be automated with a macro.

Macro command

A special Excel’s command that has meaning only within a macro. A macro command tells Excel to perform a built-in programming function. Each macro command consists of a keyword and its arguments (if any), enclosed in braces.

Macro library

A file that contains Excel macros. When a macro library is in memory, you can run the macros in the library from any active file.

Magnetic-Ink Character Recognition (MICR)

An input device that can read cards and paper documents printed with a special magnetic ink.

Magnetic bubble memory

An electronic secondary storage device constituted of solid-state electronic chips. It uses the properties of certain materials, under applied magnetic fields, to represent Binary is and Os.

Magnetic storage

Storage devices, such as disks, drums, tapes, cores, etc., that utilize the magnetic proper-ties of materials to store data.

Magnetic tape

A secondary storage device that uses a long plastic strip coated with a magnetic material as a recording medium.

Magneto-optical Drives

An erasable or semi-erasable storage disc, similar to a CD-ROM disc and of very high capacity, in which a laser beam is used to heat the recording surface to point at which tiny region on the surface can be magnetically aligned to store bits of data. MO drives come in two formats: 3.5-inch, with capacities to 230MB: and 5.25-inch, which can now write 2.6 GB cartridge. Because of their excellent performance (20- to 50-ms access times and a 2-MBps transfer rate) and nearly indestructible media, MO drives are ideal for storing large amounts of frequently used data near-line.


A special slide or page on which you define formatting for all slides or pages in Power-Point presentation. Each presentation has a master for each key component – slides, title slides, speaker’s notes, and audience hand-outs. If you have pictures, text, or special formatting you want to appear on every slide, title slide, notes page, or audience handout, add it to the corresponding master.

Master text

The slide text on the slide master. The master text determines the format of text on all slides – such as the font, color, size, line spacing, and alignment – as well as the shape of a text placeholder and its placement on a slide. The look of text you have added with the Text Box tool is not governed by the master text.

Master title

The formatted placeholder for slide titles on the Slide Master. It is here that you set the font, color, size, and alignment of slide titles as well as the title’s attributes, the shape of the title text box, and its placement on the slide.


A device or medium that can accept data, hold them, and deliver them on demand at a later time.


A list of options from which a program user can select any one in order to perform a desired action, such as choosing a command or applying a particular format to part of a document.

Menu pointer

A pointer which is used to select a menu item and display its description. To select a menu command, use the pointer-movement keys to move the pointer and then press box enclose Enter key, or type the first letter of the command.

Metting Minder

A PowerPoint feature used to coordinate the running presentation conference and take meeting minutes.


A unique 9-digit code assigned to each Bank branch by Reserve Bank of India to facilitate sorting in clearing of instruments using the Magnetic Ink Character Recognition Technology.


Biometric authentication system enabled hand-held device.

Mixed cell address

A cell address in which part of the address is relative as well as absolute. A dollar sign ($) precedes the part of the address that is absolute. When a mixed cell address is used in a formula and the formula is copied, the relative part of the address adjusts to the new location while the absolute part stays at the same place.

Network interface card

A chip-based circuit board used to connect the PC to a network or server. The card is activated by loading software on the PC.


4 bits, half a byte.


An end point of a branch in a network, or a common junction of two or more network branches.

Non-impact printer

A non-impact printer is a printer that prints without banging a ribbon onto paper, such as a thermal, inkjet and laser printer.

Non-volatile storage

A storage medium that retains its contents even in the absence of power.

Non Performing Assets (NPA)

When due payments in credit facilities remain overdue above a specified period, then such credit facilities are classified as NPA.

Notes Master

A PowerPoint feature that controls the components and formatting features of all notes pages.


To move a drawing object on a slide by a very small, preset increment.


A single component of your drawing. You can draw objects with the text and drawing tools using Drawing and AutoShape tool-bars. Objects can be rectangles, squares, circles, ovals, rectangles with rounded corners, diamonds, trapezoids, stars, free-forms, arcs, graphs, etc.


A single element for your slide. An object can be text, an imported graphic, a shape, a picture, and so on.

Octal number system

A number system with a base of 8. The octal digits range from 0 to 7. It is commonly used as a shortcut notation for groups of three binary digits.


A device which is not directly connected to the CPU.


A device or system directly connected to the CPU.

Operating system

An integrated set of programs used to manage various resources and overall operations of a computer system.

Optical bar-code reader

An input device that can interpret combinations of marks (bars) representing data.

Optical Character Reader (OCR)

An input device which can read characters directly from an ordinary piece of paper by using a scanning mechanism. These characters are written in special type fonts.

Optical Mark Reader (OMR)

An input device that can interpret pencil marks on paper media.

OR search

You can conduct an OR search on a database when you want to find records that can match at least one criterion in the given criteria range.

Organization chart

A chart object that can be placed in a Power-Point presentation representing the hierarchical structure of an organization, such as a Corporation.


For printer paper, indicates whether the document is to be printed normally (for example, in Portrait mode) or sideways (in Landscape mode).


Titles and main text from your slides. Pictures and other visuals do not appear in an outline. Other text that you have added using the Text tool and embedded text and graphics will not show up either, since they are not part of the main text.

Outline levels

Different indentations at which paragraphs appear in an outline. Titles are always at the left and text is indented one to five levels to the right of a title.

Outline Master

A master page where you can add headers, footers, etc., which appears when you print the outline.


Finished result of processing by a system.

Output range

The range into which Excel copies extracted records.

Output unit

The unit of a computer system that supplies information and results of computation to the outside world.


It is a kind of Loan arrangement under which bank extends the credit up to a maximum amount (overdraft limit) against a current account.

Overlapping objects

Elements on a slide which appear to be stacked so that one is ‘‘behind’’ the other.

Pack and Go Wizard

A wizard used to prepare a PowerPoint file for presentation at a remote location.

Page Break

A place in text where one page ends and another begins. You can direct Word to place a page break between two blocks of text so that they will print on separate pages.


A collection of tools. For example, in Power-Point, there is a color palette that displays the colors available to use in creating a graphic.

Parity bit

An extra bit added to a string of bits that enables the computer to detect internal errors in the transmission of binary data.


To break something down into its component parts.


A high-level programming language named after Blaise Pascal that facilitates the use of structured programming techniques.


A code by which a user gains access to a computer system. It is used for security purposes.

PC Card

PC cards offer large data storage and I/O capability, networking, modem and other functions with lower power consumption and fast data access speed in a compact size measuring the length and width of a credit card.


While showing a PowerPoint on-screen presentation, you can draw on the slides themselves with an electronic pen. Pen colors can be determined while setting up the presentation.

Peripherals devices

Since the input and the output devices are on the periphery (edge) of the main processing unit, they are sometimes referred to as peripheral devices.

Personal computer

A small and inexpensive computer (usually a microcomputer) used by individuals for applications, such as entertainment, home management, and hobbies.


One trillionth of a second or 10-6 second.

Pie chart

A graph in the form of a circle divided into slices, where each slice stands for a value in the range. Pie charts show what proportion of the total each graphed value represents; if one value is twice as large as another, it gets a slice that is twice as large.

PIN Number

Personal Identification Number (PIN) is randomly generated code for use of ATM Card at the time of withdrawal of money from ATM Machine and also at the time of making payment on PoS.


A picture element. It is used to represent one point in a raster scan display device.


On a PowerPoint slide, an area that can accept text, graphics or objects (such as charts).


An output device that converts computer output into a graphic, hardcopy form.

Point-of-sale device

An I/O device capable of immediately updating sales and inventory records at a central CPU and producing a printed sales transaction receipt.

Point of sale

Point of sale is a stage at which a customer makes a payment to the merchant in exchange of goods or service.


Moving the cell pointer or highlight to a cell; menu choice; file, graph, or range name; or help screen choice.

Portrait mode

A printer orientation in which the printer prints across the short dimension of the page, from top to bottom.

PowerPoint Animation Player

An add-on program that works with a Web browser to play animated PowerPoint presentations on the Internet.

PowerPoint object

Any shape you draw in PowerPoint or any graphic or picture you change from its original format to the PowerPoint format – for example, an AutoShape you draw or Clip Art you ungroup.

PowerPoint Viewer

An application that comes with PowerPoint that’s designed to support in preparing electronic slide shows.


The price of insurance protection for a specified risk for a specified period of time.


A group of related slides you can create using PowerPoint.

Presentation conference

The ability to have several people at different locations to view a PowerPoint presentation, over a network or the Internet.

Presentation graphics program

A software application that helps you structure, design, and present information, such as graphs or bulleted lists to an audience so that it is visually appealing. Primary key When you sort a database, you select a primary key to make index and sort the data-base.

Primary memory

A section of the CPU that holds program instructions, input data, intermediate results, and the output information produced during processing. Also known as primary storage, internal storage and main memory.

Print range

A range used to take print outs. A print range can be a cell, a single range, or a list of ranges.


An output device used to produce hard copy of computer output that is readable by human beings.

Printer control code

Code used in printer setup strings. Printer control codes vary from one printer to another.


A unit of a computer system that interprets instructions and executes them.


A set of sequenced instructions used to direct and control the operations of the computer in order to solve a problem or to perform a particular task.


One who designs, writes, tests, and maintains computer programs.

Programming language

A language used to express algorithms in computer understandable form.


Similar to read only memory with the exception that these chips can be reprogrammed by using special external equipments.


To indent a line of text less than the previous line, indicating a greater level of importance.


One or more symbols used by the computer to indicate it is ready for data input from a user. The DOS prompt is the disk drive designator and a right arrow, such a C: \ >.


You protect a worksheet, file, or range to avoid accidentally erasing or changing cell contents and settings accidentally.

Provident Fund (PF)

Provident funds are a particular form of retirement savings. They may be mandatory and are defined contribution schemes that pay out the contributions made and interest accumulated as a lump sum on retirement or other predetermined circumstances.


The source document that creates an object you place in a PowerPoint presentation. Whenever a publisher is changed, the object in your presentation will be updated.


To query a database is literally to ask questions to it. When you query a database, you search for specific database records by establishing selection criteria.


The total number of digits (symbols) available to represent numbers in a positional number system.

Random Access Memory (RAM)

Semiconductor-based memory that can be read and written by the microprocessor or other hardware devices. The storage locations can be accessed in any order. The term RAM is generally understood to refer to volatile memory, which can be written as well as read.


A cell or a group of contiguous cells in the worksheet file.

Range name

The name you give to a single cell or to a range of cells.


Recurring Deposits is used to save a certain amount of money regularly for a particular period and earn a higher interest rate on open recurring deposits.

Real-time systems

Pertains to online computer processing systems which receive and process data quickly enough to produce output to control, direct, or affect the outcome of an ongoing activity or process.


Formulas that contain references to changed cells are automatically recalculated if the default recalculation setting is Automatic.


In a database, a record is contained in a single row and a field in a column.

Record length

A measure of the size of a record usually specified in units, such as characters.

Relative cell address

A cell address in a formula that changes when you copy the formula to a different part of the worksheet file.

Repeating label

Used to draw lines in the worksheet.

Resident program

A program that remains in the memory while other programs are executed.

ROM (Read Only Memory)

Special memory chips containing instructions which can be read only, therefore preventing accidental destruction of the instructions. ROM is used to store firmware.


Real Time Gross Settlement inter-bank transfer systems, which transfers money, from one bank to another on a ‘‘real time’’ and on ‘‘gross’’ basis. RTGS systems are used

for high-value transactions, which require an immediate clearing and are used to transfer of Rs.2 Lakhs and above.


The time required to complete a single, continuous, execution of an object program.

Run-time error

Program errors encountered while executing programs in a computer.


They are Moneylenders, who offer loans at high rates of interest and normally people go there when bank refuses to give them the loan.


Move the screen view (or ‘‘window’’) up, down, to the right or to the left. You can scroll one line, one column, or one whole screen at a time.

Second generation computers

Computers built during the period 1955-64 which used transistors in CPU, magnetic core main memories, and high-level languages like FORTRAN and COBOL for programming.

Secondary key

You select a secondary key when you need to specify the sort order of records whose primary keys are the same.

Secondary storage

Devices like hard disk to store data permanently.


A process to protect data from unauthorized user, and also save data and information from tampering, or destruction.

Seek time

In a disk system, the time required for a read / write head to move to the track where the record to be read or written is stored. Maximum seek time equals the time taken for the head to move from the outermost track to the innermost track.


The fragments of a physical record that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion.


A method of providing virtual memory. A multidimensional linear address space implementation differentiates it from paging.


To define a section of text so that you can take action on it, such as copying, moving or formatting.

Semantic-Level Model

A data model concerned with the interpretation and meaning of stored data.

Semiconductor storage

A storage device whose elements are formed as solid-state electronic components on an integrated circuit chip.

Sequential File Organization

A file organization technique in which records are organized in order of the value of selected field.

Sequential processing

A technique in which a number of similar items or transactions to be processed are grouped together and processed in a designated sequence.

Serial access

A storage device or medium where the access time is dependent upon the location of the data. Magnetic tape is a typical serial access medium.

Serial adder

An adder in which the bits of the operands are added one after another.


An object which performs operations according to the client’s requests but may not act upon other objects. It may only send messages to other objects as a result of a request from them unless it is also a client of other servers.

Setup string

A series of characters that controls printer settings such as font size, line spacing, or other printer characteristics.

Shadow color

Color which is used to add a shadow to an object. This color often presents a darker shade of the background color.


The form of an object. A rectangle is a shape, and so is a circle, a triangle, and a trapezoid. Shape is also an attribute – you can change an object’s shape without redrawing the object.

Shortcut key

The keystroke combination that can be used to quickly execute commands (rather than opening a menu and choosing a command).


To represent and analyze properties or behavior of a physical or hypothetical system by the behavior of a system model.

Single inheritance

The situation in which a derived class has only one base class.

Sizing handle

A square handle that appears at each corner and along the sides of the rectangle that surrounds a selected object. You can drag a handle to resize an object.


The term for the working desktop area in Slide view of PowerPoint, as well as for each page of output of a PowerPoint presentation.

Slide icon

A small icon that appears next to each slide title in Outline view. PowerPoint adds icon to show you where each slide begins. A slide icon will tell you if there are any graphics on the slide as well.

Slide master

Slide that holds the formatted placeholders for the titles, main text, and any background items you want to appear on all slides in a presentation. If you make a change to the slide master, the change affects all slides in your presentation based on the master.

Slide show

A term used for a PowerPoint presentation.

Slide Sorter

A view in PowerPoint that shows miniatures of all slides in a presentation.

Slide transition

A special effect used to introduce a slide during an electronic slide show.

Soft copy

Computer output which is displayed on the screen.


A set of computer programs, procedures, and associated documentation related to the effective operation of a computer system.


The process of arranging data into a desired sequence.

Sort key

Specifies a field on which sorting process is done.

Source document

A document on which data that are to be recorded in machine-readable code originates, that is, the original hand-written or typewritten document or a time card.

Source program/Code

A program written in high-level language, such as C language, COBOL, BASIC, etc.

Speaker notes

Notes that present speech.

Special character

A graphic character that is neither a letter, a digit, nor a space character; for example, the dollar sign, comma, period, etc.

Special purpose computer

A computer that is meant for doing only a particular type of job.

Special purpose programming language

A programming language designed to handle one specific type of problem or application.

Speech recognition

The ability to input data directly into a computer system by speaking to it.

Speech synthesis

Computer output in the form of spoken word. No cassette tapes are involved, rather a small LSI microchip is used which has the capability of reproducing the human voice via a small loudspeaker amplifier. Presently multimedia is using this concept.


A technique that has been successfully used on a number of computer systems to reduce the speed mismatch between slow speed I/O devices and fast CPU.


A structure used for numeric or financial calculations. Spreadsheets contain columns and rows that intersect to form a pattern of boxes, called cells, each of which can hold a value.


SQL is the abbreviated form of structured query language. A relational data-access language created by IBM. Most database server engines use SQL, as a standard way of accessing data from client applications.


A memory in which the information stored last is on top and is retrieved first. Also known as LIFO (Last-In-First-Out) storage.

Stacked bar graph

A bar graph in which related bars are placed on top of each other (stacked) rather than placed side by side. The height of the stack of bars usually represents a total.


Placing objects on top of one another.


All transactions in a bank account for a period of time. Statements are usually given once a month.


A device or medium that can accept data, hold them, and deliver them on demand at a later time.

Stored program computer

A computer where the program is used to solve a problem and necessary data are stored in its memory.

String concatenation operator

The ampersand (&) is the only string operator used in Excel functions and formulas. It combines two strings in a formula. (Combining two strings is called concatenation).


The framework of a worksheet, as opposed to the data the worksheet manipulates. Worksheet structure includes titles, labels, and formatting specifications that control the worksheet’s appearance.


A list of additional commands available when you select a main menu command. Many menu commands bring up a sub-menu. Some submenu commands, in turn, bring up additional submenus.


A set of macro instructions that perform a specific task.


The set of rules of a programming language that define the pattern or structure of the word order and punctuation of an instruction. It is analogous to the rules of grammar in languages like English.

Syntax errors

Errors in computer programs that typically involve incorrect punctuation, incorrect word sequence, undefined terms, or misuse of terms. These errors are automatically detected and pointed out by language processors.


A blueprint that Microsoft applications, such as Word and PowerPoint use to create documents and slides respectively. The template includes the formatting options, color, and graphics necessary to create a particular look.

Term/Fixed Deposits

Term/Fixed deposits are a particular amount of money deposited in a bank for a given period from 7 days to 10 Years.


An input / output device which allows a user to communicate directly with a computer system.

Text tool

A tool on the Drawing toolbar, used to add text anywhere on a slide.

Textured background

A background design that emulates a texture, such as wood or marble.

Thermal printer

A printing device that utilizes paper that is sensitive to heat.

Third generation computer

Computers built between 1964 and 1975 that used integrated circuits in CPU, high-speed magnetic core main memories, powerful high level languages and saw the advent of time sharing operating system.


The total amount of useful processing carried out by a computer system within a given time period. It is a measure of efficiency of a computer system.


The amount of time a slide stays on the screen during a slide show.


Titles always remain in view as you scroll through the worksheet.

Title master

The slide that holds the formatted place-holders for a title and subtitle for your presentation. If you make a change to the title master, the change affects all slides in your presentation that are based on the title master.

Title placeholder

The title box that appears when you create a new slide. Click in the title placeholder and type to make your slide title.


A clear film printed with images and text and used with an overhead projector to display a presentation.


Act of disassociating objects which have been grouped together to function as a single object.


A popular operating system for 32 and 16-bit mini and micro computers that was designed by Bell Telephone Laboratories, USA.


Programs to perform some frequently required processes in the operation of a computer system- e.g., sorting, merging, transferring data files from one device to another.


The process of making sure that the forms and documents from a particular transaction are correct.

Video Display Unit (VDU)

An I/O device that consists of a television like screen for displaying outputs and a keyboard for entering inputs.

Virtual memory

The technique of using disk space to make programs believe that the system contains more RAM than is actually available. This can be implemented by using pure segmentation, pure paging, or a combination of both. Same as virtual storage.

VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration)

An electronic circuit with about 10,000 transistors fabricated in a single silicon chip.

Voice recognition unit

An input device used with voice recognition systems that converts spoken words into binary data suitable for input to the system.

Voiceband data

A communication system that handles moderate volumes of data, typically from 300 to 9600 bauds. Phone lines that we use to talk to other people is an example.

Volatile storage

A storage medium that loses its contents in the event of power failure or when the power is switched off.

Web camera

A simple Web camera consists of a digital camera attached to the computer through USB or parallel port.

What-if scenario

A calculation that uses variables in formulas to determine potential outcomes of different hypothetical situations.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

A digital communication system which interconnects different sites, computer installations and user terminals, and may also enable LANs to communicate with each other. This type of network may be developed to operate nationwide or worldwide and the transmission medium used are normally public systems such as telephone lines, microwave and satellite links.

Word processing

The use of computers to create, view, edit, format, store, retrieve, and print text materials for human communication.


A feature which allows you to create text enhancement effects.


An Excel file that contains one or more worksheets.


A desktop computer in a local area network for services provided by the network. It usually has its own processing capability.

World Wide Web

Also called the Web, WWW, and W3 an interlinked collection of hypertext documents (Web pages) residing on Web servers and other documents, menus, and databases, available via URLs.

XY graph

A graph that displays cell values as points. XY graphs use both a scaled x-axis and a scaled y-axis, so each point on the graph has an X value and a Y value. XY graphs are used to show how two different types of data are correlated. They are also known as scatter charts.

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