INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET AND WORLD WIDE WEB

WWW (World Wide Web) is the most important resource of Internet containing bulk information on each and every subject. It consists of all the public websites connected to the Internet world-wide, including the client devices (computers, cell phones, etc) that access web content. In other words, www is the group of interconnected documents (pages) and other resources that are available on Internet. These interconnected pages are called web pages and a set of related web pages is known as website. Each web page is written in HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language).

To view a web page on www, web browser software is used. Web browser is a kind of client software. You can view a web page by typing URL (Uniform Resource Locator) or address of the page on web browser. You can connect to a website with the use of HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol). HTTP is a type of protocol used to transfer data over www. On Internet, the service provider computer is called web server and the user computer is called Web Client.

Web Browsing Software

While working on Internet you need a most important software called Web Browser. A web browser or simply browser is a special software that enables the users to read/view web pages and jump from one web page to another. It is the software that is needed to find, retrieve, view and send information over the Internet.

Browsers are of two types:

(a) Text-Based Web Browsers are the web browsers that support text only i.e. these browsers do not support graphics, e.g. Lynx is a text browser.

(b) Graphical-Based Web Browsers provide a Graphical User Interface (GUI) where the user can jump from one web page to the other by clicking on the hyperlink on a web page. e.g. Chrome, Mosaic, Internet Explorer are some of the graphical browsers.

  • The process of using browser to view information on the Internet is known as Browsing or Surfing

Popular Graphical Web Browsing Software

Some popular web browsing softwares are given below:

Netscape Navigator

Netscape was introduced in 1994. It has been developed by Netscape Communication Corporation of USA. This program is available in many versions for various platforms such as Windows, Linux, Unix, Macintosh. It can be downloaded from its official website from http://browser.netscape.com.

Internet Explorer (IE)

It is a product of Microsoft Corporation, USA. This is the most commonly used browser in the universe. It is based on first web browser software Mosaic. 

This was developed in 1994 and released in 1995. It can be easily downloaded from the official website of Microsoft Corporation www.microsoft.com.

Safari

It is a web browser developed by Apple incorporation and compatible with Mac OSX, Microsoft Windows, and iphone OS. It was first released as a public beta in January, 2003. Safari provides good support for latest technologies like XHTML, CSS2 etc. It can be downloaded from www.apple.com

Mozilla Firefox

It has been developed by a company called Mozilla Corporation. It is a free, open source web browser. It was officially announced in February 2004. It was earlier named Phoenix, Firebird and eventually Firefox. It can be downloaded from www.mozilla.org.

Google Chrome

This web browser was developed by Google. Its beta and commercial versions were released in September 2008 for Microsoft Windows. Google Chrome is the fastest and most secure web browser for Windows. It supports various extensions to enhance its functionalities according to user preference. It can be downloaded from www.google.com.

Opera

Opera is also another web browser which is available in market due to its fast, safe and secure browsing. It is available for PCs and various mobile platforms as opera mini. It can be downloaded from www.opera.com.

Lynx

It is one of the oldest web browser developed in 1992. It is a text based web browsing software which has been developed in Kansas University of USA. It is basically used for Unix operating system. It does not support multimedia files so you cannot see any graphics or other media files. It can be downloaded from lynx.isc.org.

Starting Microsoft Internet Explorer

Internet Explorer can be started as follows:

(i) Click on Start button. By this, start menu will open on your screen.

(ii) If Microsoft Internet Explorer link is available in start menu, click it otherwise click all programs command in this menu. By this a list of all programs will open.

(iii) In the list of All programs, Microsoft Internet Explorer will be available, click on that.

Then, its main window will be open on your screen.

Window of Internet Explorer

In the above figure, main parts of the window of Internet Explorer are indicated by their names. Some of them are described below:

(i) Menu Bar This bar contains a number of pull down menus of Internet Explorer.

The main options of menu bar are following:

• File – New, Open, Edit, Save, etc.

• Edit – Cut, Copy, Paste, etc.

• View – Toolbars, Status bar, Explorer bar, etc.

• Favorites – Add to Favorites, Organize Favorites, Links, etc

• Tools – Mail and News, Pop-up Blocker, Manage Add-ons, Synchronize, etc.

• Help – Contents and Index, Tip of the Day, Online Support, etc.

(ii) Title Bar It is used to display the name of currently opened web page.

Minimize, Maximize, Close Buttons allow you to make your browser smaller, larger, or close your browser completely. These buttons are known as control buttons and are displayed on title bar.

(iii) Address Bar This bar displays the URL of the currently displayed web page.

You can type the web address of the web page (you want to open) on address bar and press Enter key.

(iv) Document Area It is the area in which contents of a web page are displayed.

(v) Status Bar It gives information about the current program’s work and settings. It is situated on the bottom of window.

(vi) Standard Toolbar In this bar, some frequently used commands are available like-Back, Forward, Refresh, etc.

(vii) Scroll Bars These bars are used to display a data object, such as a document or a bitmap, that is larger than the window’s client area. There are two scroll bars: horizontal and vertical scroll bars.

Configuring Web Browser

While using a web browser program, we have to customise it according to our needs.

Here, we will explain how to configure Internet Explorer:

(i) Open Internet Explorer as previously described.

(ii) Click the tools menu and select Internet Options, then the following dialog box will appear.

Internet OptionsFeatures
GeneralAppearance of window page by changing font, colour, language.
SecurityIt selects the zone to change or view of Internet security like local intranet, restricted sites, trusted sites, etc.
PrivacyIt helps to block third-party cookies.Prevent most pop-up windows.
ContentParental control enables to control the content that can be viewed.Content advisor enables you to rate the content which are viewed.Certificates enables to encrypted connection.Auto complete stores previous data of web pages.Feed and web slices provide updated content from websites.
ConnectionsTo set up the Internet connection.Setting for Local Area Network (LAN).
ProgramsSet the default web browser.Enable or disable Add-Ons on browser.To edit the HTML document.Select a program that you want to accessed from Internet Explorer.
AdvancedEnable setting of Internet Explorer.Reset the setting.

(iii) If you want to select any setting or option, click on Apply button.

(iv) After this, click to OK button.

(v) If you want to cancel the setting, click to Cancel button.

(vi) Finally, close the window by using cross button (x).

Setting Home Page

The home page of a browser is that web page which is displayed first when you open that browser. In web browser you can set any page as your home page.

To Add or Change Home Page

(i) Open Internet Explorer.

(ii) Click the Tools button and then click Internet Options.

(iii) On the General tab, under Home page, enter the URL of the site you want to set as a home page. If you want to set the currently opened web page as your home page, click use current button.

(iv) Click Apply and then click OK. The next time you open a new browsing session or window (or click the Home button), your home pages will be loaded automatically.

View Your Browsing History

By viewing your browsing history, you can view any specific website that you’ve already visited.

Step 1 In Internet Explorer window, click the favorites button.

Step 2 Click the History tab and choose how you want to view your history by selecting a filter from the drop down menu. Alternatively, Ctrl+H key is used to open history window.

• View By Date shows your last three weeks of history in chronological order.

• View By Site shows a list of sites you visited in the last three weeks, but not the dates of your visits.

• View By Most Visited shows your most visited sites in last three weeks.

• View By Order Visited Today shows only those sites that you visited today.

Step 3 Click OK button.

The history list contains the links to web pages opened last time.

  • Cookie is a small message given to a web browser by a web server. It stores information about the users web activity.

Delete Browsing History

To delete your browsing history in the Internet Explorer follow these steps:

Step 1 Open Internet Explorer. Go to Tools option and click on Safety button.

Step 2 Select Delete Browsing History command in the menu.

Step 3 Next, select the Checkbox next to each category of information you want to delete.

Step 4 Finally, click on Delete button.

Search Engines

A search engine is a program, which is used to find information on the Internet. The search results are generally presented in a list. This link is known as hit list. If you want some special information and do not know on which website it is available, then you can search it on the Internet through the search engine. For a successful search you have to type some words closely related to your target websites, these words are called search words.

Popular Search Engines

Some of the most popular search engines are given below:

Google

This is the world’s most popular search engine. It began as a research project in 1996 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin.

They developed a search engine algorithm that ranked web pages not just by content and keywords, but by how many other web pages are linked to each page. It provide services like Google Groups, Gmail, etc.

Yahoo

It is one of the Internet’s leading search engines. It is also the largest web portal, providing links to thousands of other websites. These links include sites from the Yahoo! Directory as well as news, stories that are updated several times in a day.

Altavista

Altavista offers software products you can use to locate and manage information on the Internet or a private computer network that uses Internet tools. This search engine has a spider called Scooter that traverses the web and Usenet newsgroups.

Dogpile

It is one of the search engines, which has combined many search engines. Dogpile is a search engine that fetches results from Google, Yahoo etc.

HotBot

This search engine is used to retrieve or index the web documents. This web search engine is currently owned by Lycos and was launched in May 1996 by Wired magazine.

Lycos

It is a search engine whose database is very big. It contains more than 66 million pages in its database. It searches information on the basis of subjects.

It is the main search engine that do searching on the basis of directories. Its URL is http://www.lycos.com/.

WebCrawler

WebCrawler has a powerful search customisation and a good selection of site reviews. It is also called web spider or spider. It visits websites and reads their pages and other information in order to create entries for a search engine index.

Searching Content on Search Engines

Searching is characterised as a process in which user describe a request via a query and the system must generate information that satisfies or matches the request. There are numerous websites, which provide search facility for searching the contents on Internet. For instance, www.google.com is a website, which provides search facility. As shown in the figure below, the search facility remains available in the form of a text box and a button titled ‘Search’.

To get the information on any desired topic, execute the following steps:

(i) Enter the search term in text box.

(ii) When you enter the text, a program called Search Engine will search its information in database and find the links to the same. In technical terms, this list is known as Hit List.

(iii) To go to the website that contains the information, click on any desired link of the hit list by mouse.

(iv) After reaching the website, you can make use of browser’s ‘Back’ button, to get back to the hit list.

(v) Now, click the mouse on another link to get more information on the same topic but from another website.

Accessing Web Browser

Web browser is a software/program which is used to see web pages. Moving from one website to another website is called web browsing or web surfing. The following explains the steps to access a website browsing:

(i) Get connected to Internet.

(ii) Invoke web browser and get browser window on the screen.

(iii) Enter domain name in address box and press ‘Enter’ key. e.g. If you access yahoo.com website, its Home page, as illustrate^ in figure below, will get displayed in browser window.

Using Favorites Folder

A favorite is a link to a web page, which is kept in a list or folder called Favorites folder. You can open that web page quickly by clicking that link in your favorite list. This button, Favorite, is also known as Bookmarks in most browsers. Here, you can add or organise your favorite web pages and folders, by following the given steps:

To Add a Favorite

• Open the web page in the Internet Explorer

• Select the Favorite button,

• Click on Add Favorite.

• It will appear a dialog box as shown,

Alternatively, press Ctrl + O key to open Add Favorite dialog box.

• Type or edit a name for this web page in name text box.

• Click Add buttons. By this, the link will be save to favorites.

Organizing Favorites

You can organize your favorite web pages in folders according to your need and choice. To organize your favorite web pages, open a dialog box by clicking on Organize Favorite button, as shown:

To create new folders for your favorites:

Step 1 Open Internet Explorer and click the Favorites button.

Step 2 Click on Organize Favorites.

Step 3 In the Organize Favorites dialog box, you’ll see a list of your favorite links and folders.

Step 4 Select Create Folder and then enter a name for your new folder.

Step 5 Select the Close option and folder will add to the list.

You can also rename, reorganize and delete favorites or folders from the Organize Favorites dialog box.

Downloading the Web Pages

Downloading is the process of saving some data from Internet to your own computer. To download or save some web page in your computer, follow these steps:

Step 1 Open Internet Explorer by clicking the start button.

Step 2 Go to the web page that you want to save.

Step 3 Click the file button and then click Save As. A Save As dialog box appears.

Save Web Page dialog box

Step 4 In the save in area, navigate that folder, where you want to save the web page.

By default, web pages are saved in the document folder. In the Save As type box, do one of the following:

• Type a new name in the file name box.

• To save all the files associated with the page, including graphics, frames and style sheets in their original format, select complete Web Page.

• To save all information as a single file, select Web Archive, single file (*.mht).

• To save just the current HTML page, without graphics, sounds or other files, select Web page, HTML only.

• To save just the text from the current web page, select Text file.

• Click Save.

Printing Web Pages

You can print an entire web page or its selected part on a printer. To print web pages using Internet Explorer, we follow some steps:

Step 1 Open the web page in Internet Explorer window.

Step 2 To print a web page go to File menu then click print or click print button on command bar.

Step 3 A dialog box appear, do necessary settings like choose the printers, pages, number of copies etc.

Step 4 Click Print button.

Step 5 By this your web page will be printed on printer. You can also apply a shortcut key Ctrl+ P to print pages. After print, it will automatically close the Print dialog box.

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